of the Long Term Effects of Prematurity
of follow-up studies prepared by Helen Harrision, author of The
Premature Baby, for parents to present to the school, the pediatrician,
and any other institution or person who deals with our children. The articles
"cover the range of the 'milder' issues from visual (non-ROP), visual/motor,
motor problems (that aren't called CP), behavioral, cognitive, learning
problems, scan abnormalities and relation (or lack of relation) to other
By Helen Harrison
See Also: Research
on Prematurity Impacts
You can use Medscape
& Medline to view abstracts of many of these articles.
Palta, Sadek-Badai, Evans et al. "Functional Assessment of a
Multicenter Very Low-Birth Weight Cohort at Age 5 Years" Archives
of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2000;154:23-30.
Goyen, Lui, and Woods. "Visual-Motor, Visual-Perceptual, and Fine
Motor Outcomes in Very-Low-Birthweight Children at 5 Years. Developmental
Medicine and Child Neurology 1998;40:76-81.
Luoma, Herrgard, and Martikainen "Neuropsychological Analysis
of the Visuomotor Problems in Children born Preterm at < or = 32 weeks
of gestation:A Five Year Prospective Follow-up."Developmental
Medicine and Child Neurology 1998;40:21-30.
Briscoe, Gathercole and Marlow. "Short-term Memory and Language
Outcomes After Extreme Prematurity at Birth" Journal of Speech,
Language and Hearing Research 1998:41:654-66.
Holsti, Grunau, and Whitfield. "Developmental Coordination Disorder
in Extremely Low Birthweight Children( =/<800 grams) t 8.9 Years." Pediatric
Research 1999;45:245A, #1443. (Not available online)
Grunau, Whitfield, McConnell et al. "Prediction of Written
Output Ability in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW; =/<800g) Children
from Age 4 to 8 Years." , 1999;45:245A, #1440. (Not
Kamaya, Moddemann, and Casiro. "Emotional and Behavioral Adjustments
of' Normal' Very Low Birth Weight Children Compared to Controls at 7 Years
of Age." Pediatric Research. 1996;39:269A #1597.
(Not available online)
Olsen, Vainionpaa, Paakko et al. "Psychological Findings in Preterm
Children Related to Neurologic Status and Magnetic Resonance Imaging."
Olsen, Paakko, Vainionpaa et al. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of
Periventricular Leukomalacia and its Clinical Correlation in Children."
Annals of Neurology 1997;41:754-61.
Skranes, Nilsen, Smevik et al. "Cerebral MRI of Very Low Birth
Weight Children at 6 Years of Age Compared with the Findings at One Year"
Skranes, Vik, Nelsen et al. Cerebral Magnetic Resonance Imaging and
Mental and Motor Function of Very Low Birth Weight Children at Six Years
of Age." Neuropediatrics1997;28:149-54.
Harvey, O'Callaghan and Mohay. "Executive Function of Children
with Extremely Low Birthweight: A Case Control Study" Developmental
Medicine and Child Neurology1999;41:292-7.
Sykes, Hoy, Bill et al. "Behavioural Adjustments in School of
Very Low Birthweight Children" Journal of Child Psychology
DonLevy, Lee, Wells et al. "Are Perinatal Factors Predictive
of Optimal School Age Outcome in the ELBW Infant?"Pediatric
Majnemer, Riley, Shevell et al. "Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
Increases Risk for Later Neurological and Motor Sequelae in Preterm Survivors."
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 2000;42:53-60.
Falk, Eliakim, Dotan et al. "Birth weight and physical ability
in 5- to 8-year old healthy children born prematurely" Medicine
and Science in Sports and Exercise1997;29:1124-30.
Hebbandi, Bowen, Hipwell et al. "Ocular Sequelae in Extremely
Premature Infants at 5 Years of Age." Journal of Paediatrics
and Child Health 1997:33:339-42.
Marlow, Botting, Powls and Cooke. "Psychiatric Outcomes
in Adolescent Very Low Birthweight Children "Pediatric
Research 1997;41:204A, #1207.
Saigal, Hoult, Streiner et al. "School Difficulties
at Adolescence in a Regional Cohort of Children Who Were Extremely Low
Birth Weight" Pediatrics 2000;105:325-331. -- 7 pages
Wolke and Meyer. "Cognitive Status, Language Attainment,
and Prereading Skills of 6-Year-Old Very Preterm Children and Their Peers:
The BavarianLongitudinal Study" Developmental Medicine and
1999;41:94-109. -- 16 pages
Skuse. "Survival After Being Born Too Soon, But at What Cost?"
The Lancet 1999:354:. -- 2 pages
Stewart, Rifkin, Amess et al. "Brain Structure and Neurocognitive
and Behavioral Function in Adolescents Who Were Born Very Preterm"
Lancet 1999;353:1653-57. -- 5 pages
Whitaker, Van Rossem, Feldman et al. "Psychiatric Outcomes in
Low-Birth-Weight Children at Age 6 Years: Relation to Neonatal Cranial
Ultrasound Abnormalities" Archives of General Psychiatry
1997;54:847-856. -- 9 pages ( I am missing the last page of references)
Whitfield, Grunau and Holsti. "Extremely Premature Schoolchildren
(=/< 800 Grams: Multiple Areas of Hidden Disability" Archives
of Disease in Childhood1997;77:F85-F90.-- 6 pages
Halsey, Collin and Anderson "Extremely Low-Birth-Weight
Children and Their Peers" Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent
Medicine1996;150:790-4. -- 5 pages
Marlow, Roberts and Cooke. "Motor Skills in Extremely Low Birthweight
Children at the Age of 6 Years" Archives of Disease in Childhood_1989;64:839-47.
-- 9 pages
Losse, Henderson, Elliman et al. "Clumsiness in Children
- Do They Grow Out of It? Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology1991;33:55-68.
-- 14 pages
Hack, Taylor Klein, et al. "School-Age Outcomes in Children with
Birth Weight Under 750 g" The New England Journal of Medicine
1994;331:753-9. -- 7 pages
Taylor, Klein and Hack. "Achievement in Children with Birth Weights
Less Than 750 Grams With Normal Cognitive Abilities: Evidence for Specific
Learning Disabilities." Journal of Pediatric Psychology1995;20:
703-719. -- 8 pages
Volpe. "Cognitive Deficits in Premature Infants" The
New England Journal of Medicine1991;325:276-7 (Commentary on the study
by Hack, Breslau, Weissman et al. "Effect of Very Low Birth Weight
and Subnormal Head Size on Cognitive
Abilities at School Age."New England Journal of Medicine1991;325:231-7."
) -- 2 pages
Powls, Botting, Cooke et al. "Visual Impairment in Very Low Birthweight
Children" Archives of Disease in Childhood 1997;76: F82-87.
-- 6 pages
Botting, Powls, Cooke and Marlow. "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder and Other Psychiatric Outcomes in Very Low Birthweight Children
at 12 Years" Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry1997;38:931-41.
-- 11 pages
Also of interest - articles about studies:
From: Pediatric News 1991 page 30: "Clumsiness in Young
Children May Persist in Later Years" concerning a study in Developmental
Medicine and Child Neurology by Anne Losse and colleagues, above.)
"Low birthweight, vision" on the study by Powls et al.
"Forgetting May Be A Matter of Birth Injury" Reuters
Medical News, October 27, 1999.
Winslow. "Trouble Plagues Preemies Who Are Saved"
The Wall Street Journal September 22, 1994. (Commentary on Maureen
Hack's Study on <750 g Preemies, above.)
Helen Harrison is the well known author of The
Premature Baby Book, often referred to as the "Bible of Prematurity"
by older preemie parents. These observations are excerted with permission from
posts to the prematurity parents support internet mailing lists on prematurity:
Preemie-child and Preemie-L.